Contents: Introduction; Part I Theoretical Background: Is a cultural ethology possible?, F.T. Cloak Jr; Cultural evolution, Luigi L. Cavalli-Sforza; Advances in evolutionary culture theory, William H. Durham; Does culture evolve?, Joseph Fracchia and R.C. Lewontin. Part II The Phylogenetic Approach to Culture: The comparative method in anthropology, Ruth Mace and Mark Pagel; Putting anthropology back together again: the ethnogenetic critique of cladistic theory, John H. Moore; The pleasures and perils of Darwinizing culture (with phylogenies), Russell D. Gray, Simon J. Greenhill and Robert M. Ross. Part III Memetics: Memes and the exploitation of imagination, Daniel C. Dennett; Evolution and memes: the human brain as a selective imitation device, Susan Blackmore; The meme metaphor, Mark Jeffreys; The trouble with memes: inference versus imitation in cultural creation, Scott Atran; Memes revisited, Kim Sterelny. Part IV Dual Inheritance Theory and Niche Construction: The evolution of ethnic markers, Robert Boyd and Peter J. Richerson; On modeling cognition and culture: why cultural evolution does not require replication of representations, Joseph Henrich and Robert Boyd; The evolution and evolvability of culture, Kim Sterelny; Niche construction, biological evolution and cultural change, Kevin N. Laland, John Odling-Smee and Marcus W. Feldman. Part V Psychological Mechanisms: Rational preselection from hamadryas to homo sapiens: the place of decisions in adaptive process, Christopher Boehm; The evolution of prestige: freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission, Joseph Henrich and Francisco J. Gil-White; The cognitive foundations of cultural stability and diversity, Dan Sperber and Lawrence A. Hirschfeld; The evolution of culture: from primate social learning to human culture, Laureano Castro and Miguel A. Toro. Part VI Culture in Non-Human Animals: Culture in animals: the case of a non-human primate culture of low aggression and high affiliation, Robert M. Sapolsky; The animal cultures debate, Kevin N.Laland and Vincent M. Janik; How do apes ape?, Andrew Whiten, Victoria Horner, Carla A. Litchfield and Sarah Marshall-Pescini; Cultural transmission: a view from chimpanzees and human infants, Michael Tomasello; Name Index.